Sports massage is focused and systematic, targeting muscles that are used in a specific sport. It uses various techniques to decrease muscle pain and improve recovery, as well as improve overall range of motion and flexibility to support safe and effective movement.
A sports massage therapist can assist with training, rehabilitation, and pre- or post-performance goals. While often sought by elite and amateur athletes, sports massage can also be beneficial for anyone who regularly exercises.
This article explains what sports massage is for and the various styles of massage that may offer benefits. It also offers information about how to find a sports massage therapist near you.
What Is Sports Massage?
Various movements and techniques are used to try to help an athlete's body achieve maximum performance and physical conditioning, with a decreased chance of injury or pain and a quicker recovery.
A sports massage session is specifically tailored to an individual’s needs. Some elements of sports massage are used in other physical therapy settings and to treat conditions outside of sports, such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
Examples of techniques used in sports massage include:
- Swedish style massage
- Effleurage (stroking)
- Petrissage (kneading)
- Tapotement (rhythmic striking)
- Trigger points
Sports Massage Benefits
Many sports massage benefits have been reported on the basis of experience and observation alone. These include:
- Increased joint range of motion (ROM)
- Increased flexibility
- Decreased muscle tension
- Decreased neurological excitability (nerves more relaxed)
- Decreased muscle spasms
- Increased sense of well-being
- Decreased anxiety and improved mood
- Better sleep
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Purported benefits for which there is limited research evidence include:
- Increased blood flow
- Increased elimination of exercise waste products (lactic acid)
- Decreased chance of injury
- Decreased recovery time between workouts
Limits of Sports Massage
Some studies have shown a modest benefit in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Others demonstrate a benefit in reducing lactic acid buildup in muscles when sports massage is used in combination with cold water immersion after exercise.
Additional research has focused on benefits associated with active and passive recovery, with some evidence that passive recovery may be the superior approach.
On balance, study findings on sports massage indicate that while it does not negatively affect performance, its benefits are not quite as clear.
More research is needed on the positive effects of sports massage.
Side Effects of Sports Massage
For the most part, sports massage is safe with very few side effects.
Potential side effects of sports massage include tenderness or stiffness for one to two days after a therapy session.
It's also possible that you could have a skin reaction to the massage oils used.
Finding a Sports Massage Therapist
It is important that you book your sessions with a credentialed sports massage therapist. These practitioners are specially trained to work with people with various sports injuries and help prevent future injury related to your sport or activity of choice.
You can look for some in your area by checking the National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork (NCBTMB)’s Find A Nationally Certified Practitioner database. You also can use the American Massage Therapy Association’s (AMTA) Find a Massage Therapist database.
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The AMTA recommends asking the following questions:
- What are your certifications?
- Are you licensed or registered as a massage therapist in this state? (Almost all states regulate massage therapists, requiring credentials to practice.)
- Which types of massage are you trained to perform?
- Can you address my health and fitness concerns?
Sports massage is highly valued by many athletes, even though some of its purported benefits are not supported by research. If your goal is relief from sore and tense muscles after a workout, as well as general relaxation, it may be valuable for you.